Essay On Water Crisis In India
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The five elements have been considered as the basis for life and one of them is also water. Life cannot be imagined without water. If there was no water, then the creation of the universe would not have been possible.
The importance of water can also be understood from the fact that the great civilizations of the world developed on the banks of rivers and all the ancient cities are located on the banks of rivers, but today there is no value of natural resources in the blind race of development.
In the guise of luxury, man has exploited water so much that today half of the world’s population does not even have access to clean drinking water.
India is also not untouched by this and all the reports are strongly reiterating that if we are not able to manage water resources properly, then we will be craving for every drop of water in the coming days.
The importance of water for human existence is clear from this saying “Water is life
Water is one of the most important resources of nature. Today many countries of the world, including India, are standing at the mouth of this water crisis.
According to a recent report, Chennai ranks first in water-stressed cities around the world.
Among the top 20 cities in the world facing a water crisis, 4 cities are in India, besides Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Delhi are included in this list.
NITI Aayog also believes that India is facing a severe water crisis
NITI Aayog has also warned the country about the seriousness of the water crisis. According to the NITI Aayog, the water crisis has taken a formidable form in many cities of the country.
Water will be on the verge of running out by 2030, the people of Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai, and Hyderabad will have to face this difficulty the most.
Water problems will start from 2020-21. After some time, about 10 crore people will take a lot of trouble due to water.
Access to drinking water will be lost to about 40% of the people of the country and there is a possibility of a 6% loss to GDP due to the water crisis.
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Water Crisis has become a huge problem in India. Under the pressure of urbanization and industrialization, the level of groundwater is continuously falling down.
Many states of the country are struggling with water problems, due to indiscriminate exploitation of water, the water level from inside the ground is continuously falling down.
The reservoirs are drying up and the water flow in the rivers is decreasing. According to the Central Ground Water Board, the level of groundwater has reduced considerably due to the decreasing rainfall from year to year.
55% of the country’s wells have dried up. In the last 10 years, the level of groundwater has reduced by 54%
The annual average rainfall in India is 1170 millimeters, which is about 6 times more than the western US, despite this, about 100 million people in urban areas do not have access to clean drinking water.
In rural areas of India, 70 percent of people drink polluted water, and 33% of people live in a place where there is severe drought every year.
According to the World Bank report, more than 3 lakh farmers have committed suicide in India due to drought during the last 20 years.
Although there are many rivers in the country, due to pollution
In many places, the water of rivers is not worth bathing, due to the increasing population, the demand for water is also increasing.
In India, 85 percent of the total water consumption is used in agriculture, 10% in industries, and 5% in households.
According to the World Bank, by 2030 the demand for water in India will be twice the total supply.
In 1994 the presence of water was 6000 cubic meters per person, In 2000 it was reduced to 2300 cubic meters and by 2030 the availability of water is expected to be only 1600 cubic meters per person.
There is no solid water conservation policy in the country, due to disturbances in the distribution network in cities, millions of gallons of water are wasted daily. 65% of the rainwater flows across the country into the sea.
Every day 4 lakh liters of water is released in dirty drains but only 20% of these are reused.
If only 5% of the total rainfall in the country is preserved, then the year-long needs of more than 100 crores people can be fulfilled.
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Causes Of Water Crisis (Essay On Water Crisis In India)
- The increasing population used the water excessively and did not take any steps to conserve water, which has led to the drying up of many rivers, ponds, and water wells across the country.
- An increase in population is also a reason for the decrease in the level of groundwater.
- Rivers water has been stopped by building dams in the basins of many rivers. However, it is claimed that the water of the dam is being provided to the farmers. but, the thermal canal plants, nuclear power plants, and industrial units are making maximum use of the water that is being continuously stopped from the dam. The farmer relies on borewell or tubewell water for irrigation of the farm.
- Groundwater not being properly recharged is also an important reason for the water crisis.
- The increasing number of borewells is also a major cause of the water crisis. Not only for the farmers but also for domestic needs, people are installing submersible pumps and these are also causing water waste in many places. As a result of this, the water level has gone up to 70-100 feet deep in areas where water was available at a depth of 20-30 feet till 10 years ago.
- Groundwater is also being extracted for industrial needs is also a major cause of the water crisis.
- Apart from indiscriminate water exploitation, climate change is also a reason for falling water levels. Over the years, monsoon rainfall has not been uniform, that is, excessive rainfall has occurred in many areas, while many areas are experiencing drought.
- The water that was rained could not be conserved, that is, lack of awareness has increased the problems.
- Constant tree cutting is also increasing the water crisis
- In the village too, destroying small ponds and canals is also going to cause a water crisis.
- Under the law in India, the owner of the land also owns the water while the groundwater is a shared resource. But there is no better punitive provision against those who wastewater.
- To overcome all these problems, the Government of India has constituted the “Ministry of Jal Shakti” to work extensively with the state on water harvesting and water conservation across the country.
Solution For Water Crisis (Essay On Water Crisis In India)
Several effective measures are needed to avoid a water crisis such as: –
- Proper management of water, land, and forest
- Prohibition of excessive groundwater exploitation
- Proper use of water in ponds and lakes
- Keeping water free from pollution
- Need to make check dams on rivers and drains
- Apart from all this, water purification is also a better solution for water conservation.
- 85% of the rainwater flows into the sea through rivers, if this water is transported inside the earth, it will have two benefits. One, the problem of the flood will be less and secondly, the level of groundwater will also increase. So, rainwater harvesting is needed to overcome water scarcity and improve the present situation.
- There is also a lot of water consumption in agriculture, there is a need to popularize drip and sprinkler systems for irrigation.
- Groundwater levels can be increased by adopting artificial recharge techniques in hilly areas.
- Groundwater level can be increased by saving wastewater through sloping rivers and drains in rural areas through artificial recharge.
- Water Crises can also be avoided by using water monitoring, efficient water management, and advanced techniques.
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Water Crisis By Dhruv Rathee