Right to Education Act (RTE) 2009
What is the Right to Education Act (RTE)?
Education is one of the great tools by which economically and socially marginalized adults and children can uplift themselves from poverty and participate fully as citizens. On 4th Aug 2009, the Parliament of India enacted the Right to Education Act (RTE).
Which describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between the age of 6 to 14 in India under Article 21a of the Indian Constitution. India became one among 135 countries to make education a fundamental right of each child when the Act came into force on 1st, April 2010.
What is the Right to Education?
The Right to Education has been universally accepted since the universal declaration of Human rights in 1948. While the large majority of countries have signed and approved these rights far fever has combined these into their constitutions or gave the legislative and administrative framework to ensure the realization of those rights in practice.
Today, the right to education remains denied to millions around the world. Education must be available, accessible, acceptable, and adaptable for it to be a meaningful right.
The 4 A’s concept was developed by the former UN special reporter on the right to education, Katarina Tomasevski.
Right to Education Act (RTE) 2009
- The intention of the right to education act (RTE) is the Education for all.
- Section 12 of the Right to Education Act (RTE) requires all private schools to give disadvantaged children at least 25 percent of their seats.
- But in reality, its become contrary
- It has devoid millions of children of their right to education by shutting down schools.
School killer sections of Right to Education Act (RTE)
- As per section 18 of Right to Education,
- A private unaided school must obtain a license from the government
- A private unaided school has to fulfill stipulated infrastructure norms pupil-teacher ratio.
- Section 19 of the Right to Education Act (RTE)
- It mandates the closure of a school without a license.
- More tough conditions by various state governments.
Why govt follow such sections?
- Section 19 convenient for politics.
- Because of the 25% seat obligation in private schools, the trend of migration from public school to private school is full-on.
- In 2015-16: Rajasthan, Maharashtra, and Chhattisgarh closed about 24,000 government schools.
- In total schools, enrolment had fallen less than 10 students.
- closures expose government incompetence.
- To avoid embarrassment, govt enforces section 19 of the Right to Education and shuts private schools without a license.
- This forces poor kids to stay/join government schools.
NOTE: Government schools are infamous for higher teacher absentee rates.
- The horrendous consequences for children’s learning levels, and ultimately for productive and national growth, are nowhere in the conclusion.
- While these restrictions are supposedly quality-related, In fact, this inputs-focused approach is already discredited internationally in hundreds of studies and meta-analysis.
- And even, national data show that now learning levels of children in these schools are twice ( in some states thrice) as high as in government schools. by closing down such private schools, the government avoids a double burden.
- Government schools: Maintaining empty school buildings and high paid teachers (average per-pupil expenditure on salary alone is Rs 2,300 per month).
- Reimbursing private schools for educating children who have abandoned government schools.
- As per section 19 of the Right to Education Act (RTE): government schools are exempted from penalties for violating the infrastructure norms.
- The outcome of this exemption:-
- Only 6.4% of them actually fulfilled the norms by 2016.
- Thus the act shelters infrastructures-deficient government school from closure, and applies double standards.
- The disastrous act does not stop here…
Right to Education Act (RTE), (Section 16)
- Obligates state governments to establish neighborhood public schools in all localities.
- It means creating more such unproductive, extremely inefficient schools which are already the last option of parents.
Official data from U-DISE: (2010-16)
- Enrolment in public elementary schools fell by 1.8 crores
- The average enrolment fell from 122 to only 103 pupils per govt school.
- Number of ‘small’ government schools (those with a total enrolment of ‘so or fewer’ students) rose from 3,13,169 to 4,17,193
- The recognized private issue rose by 1.7 crore
- The average school size in this 4.17 lakh school was a mere 28 students per school.
- Monstrously unviable, both pedagogically and economically.
- The total teachers’ salary bill in these 4.17 lakh ‘small government schools was Rs 56,497 crore in 2016-17(data from NUEPA).
- Right to Education (RTE’s) insistence on creating more government schools when such schools have been rapidly emptying has led to grotesque inefficiency, and it constitutes the ruinous triumph of ideology over sense.
- On top there, section 12 of the act was not implemented by any state governments.
- Uttarakhand and Maharashtra governments say can not afford it.
- Karnataka: blaming this clause for the privatization of education.
- Some say its anti-Hindu since it applies only to the non-minority (mainly Hindu) schools.
Problems faced by the private school because of this excuses are real and many:
- Low reimbursement rates
- Delay in reimbursements
- Deficits in reimbursements
- Political capture
- Official interference
- Loss of autonomy
- Right to Education Act’s framers disregarded the evidence on the emptying of government schools.
- Framers were denial about the pitiably low learning levels, which were driving parents to private schools.
- They merrily focused on ensuring access to schooling
- The crying needs are so far accountability raising reform that exposes government schools to the rigorous competition from private schools.
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